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on 4/3/2011, 07:50

SUBJUNCTIVE


(Bàng thái cách)





The subjunctive
in English is the simple form of the
verb
when used after certain verbs
indicating that one person want another person to do something. The word that must always appear in subjunctive sentences. If it is omitted, most
of the verbs are followed by infinitives.


For example: We
urge him that he leave now


We
urge him to leave now.


Verbs used with the subjunctive are
listed:



advise demand prefer require


ask insist propose beg


command move recommend suggest


decree order request urge


intend resolve vote


Formular


S + verb + that + S + verb in simple form +…..


(any tense)


Ex: Tom
suggested that his friends
stay over for the night.


Sam proposed that Tom telephone his
accountant.


She recommended that he go and see a doctor.


He insisted that she stay until the
end of the week.


Adjectives used with the subjunctive are listed:


advised necessary recommended urgent


important obligatory required imperative


determined proposed suggested vital


Formular


It + be + Adj + that + S + verb in simple form +…..


(any tense)


Ex: It is
necessary that he find the books.


It was urgent that she leave at once.


It is important that you remember this
question.


It has been recommended that we wait
for the authorities.


Exercise :
Correct the errors in the following sentences, if there are no errors, write
correct.



1. The teacher demanded that the students left the
room.


2. It was urgent that he called her at once.


3. It was very important that we delay discussion.


4. She intends to move that the committee suspends
(hoãn) discussion on this issue.


5. The king ordered that the new law took effect to
the following month.


6. I propose that you should stop this rally (cuộc
đua)


7. I advise you take the prerequisites before
registering for this course.


8. His father prefers that he attends a different
university.


9. The committee commanded that the rule be abolished.


10. She urged that we found another alternative.








AS IF/AS THOUGH





These
conjunctions indicate sth unreal or contrary to fact (very similar in form
to conditional clause). The verb which follows these conjunctions must be in past simple or past perfect. Remember
that the past tense of be must be WERE.


Formular 1


S + verb ( present) + as if/as though + S + verb (past) +…..


Ex: The
old lady dresses as if it were
in winter even in the summer. (It is not
winter)


He acts
as though he were rich. (he
is not rich)


Formular 2


S + verb ( past) + as if/as though + S + verb (past perfect) +…..


Ex: Betty
talked about the contest as if
she had won the 1st prize. (She didn’t win the 1st
prize)


He looked
as though he had run ten
miles. (he didn’t run 10 miles)





WOULD RATHER





Would rather means the same as prefer, except the grammar is different. Would rather must be followed by a verb, but prefer may or may not be followed by a verb.


Ex: John would rather drink Coca-Cola than orange juice.


John prefers drinking Coca-Cola to drinking orange juice.


OR


John
prefers Coca-Cola to orange juice.


Cách dùng
would rather được phân chia theo số lượng chủ từ và thì của câu.



ØMột chủ từ:


present


S + would rather + verb in simple form.


Ex: Jim’d rather
go to class tomorrow than today.


Jim’d
rather not go to class tomorrow


past.


S + would
rather + have + V3/ed



Ex: John’d rather
have gone to class yesterday than today.


John’d
rather not have gone to class
yesterday


ØHai chủ từ:
Present subjunctive



S1
+ would rather that + S2 + verb in simple form.



Ex: I’d rather that you call me
tomorrow.


We’d rather that he take this train.


Present contrary to the fact


S1
+ would rather that + S2 + verb in simple past.



Ex: He’d rather that his sister worked in the same apartment as he does. (his
sister doesn’t work in the same apartment)


Jane’d rather that it were winter now.
(it is not winter now)


Past contrary to the fact


S1
+ would rather that + S2 + past perfect



Ex: He’d rather that Jim had gone to class yesterday. (Jim didn’t go to class
yesterday)





Exercises:


1. We’d rather ……………….…home tonight.(stay)
2. Mr. Jones would rather ……………...home last night. (stay)


3. The policeman would rather ………………...on Saturday
than on Sunday. (work)


4. Maria would rather that we……………..more than we do.
(study)


5. George would rather …………………tonight. (study, not)


6. The photographer would rather …………………. more light.
(have)


7. The photographer would rather that we
………………….closer together than we are standing. (stand).


8. Carmen would rather ………………….for the entire family.
(cook, not)


9. She would rather that you ………………….last night.
(arrive, not)


10. John would rather ………………….than worked last night.
(sleep)





SUBJECT AND
VERB AGREEMENT.







* Những trường hợp dùng với động từ số ít



Ø Words that always take singular verbs and pronouns:


any + singular noun no + singular noun some + singular noun


anybody nobody somebody


anyone no one someone


anything nothing something


every + singular noun each + singular noun


everybody either (nếu
có dùng với or/nor thì chia theo chủ
từ sau or/nor)


everyone neither


everything


Ex: Everyone has been invited.


No one knows the correct answer.


Something was under that house.


Ø “The number of”


Ex: The number of tenants without heart
is
increasing.


The number of people who eat much vegetable is healthier.


Ø “one of”


Ex: She
is one of my best friends.


He
is one of the most cooperative
students I’ve ever had.


Ø Các đơn vị đo lường đếm được đối với tiền bạc, khoảng
cách, thời gian và thực phẩm:



Ex: Six months is not enough time.


300 miles is a long way to go on bicycle.


5000 dollars is a big sum of money.


Ham and eggs is my favorite meal.


Ø Số của dộng từ sẽ không bị ảnh hưởng bởi những cụm từ
sau: “
together with…”, “as well as..”, “along with….”,
“accompanied by….”, “in addition to…”



Ex: Mary Nell, as well as her sons, has studied Spanish for many years.


The
chairman, together with his wife and
sons, is waiting at the main hall.


Ø Chủ từ của một mệnh đề danh từ:
Ex: How many fish there are
doesn’t matter.


What kind of people they are is
important.


Ø Những danh từ chỉ môn học: mathematics,
physics, statistics, ascoustics…. (Lưu ý
khi những danh từ này được đề cập với 1 ý nghĩa khác ngoài môn học ra thì được
chia ở số nhiều)



Ex: Mathematics is a compulsory subject at school.


Ascoustics is a branch of Physics.


Ø Những danh từ chỉ các loại bệnh: measles
(bệnh sởi), mumps (quai bị)…



Ex: German measles is a dangerous disease for pregnant women.


Ø Những danh từ chỉ tập hợp: government,
organization, team, group, family, army, club, crowd, class…(lưu ý: những danh
từ này sẽ được dùng với số nhiều trong những câu muốn đề cập đến từng cá nhân)



Ex: The family was surprised by the news.


The crowd was wild with excitement.


Our team is going to win this game.





* Những trường hợp dùng với động từ số nhiều:


Ø Khi chủ từ kép được kết nối bằng 1 liên từ kết hợp (“and”)nhưng có ý tách biệt, không ám chỉ cùng 1
người.



Ex: Ben and Nick like playing football.


Your investment and property are sure
to increase in value.


Ø A number of


Ex: A number of prolems still have to be solved.


A number of people come to the festival every year.


Ø Các từ như both, few, many, other, several.


Ex: Few of
the group are below standard.


Several of the questions
seem
to be difficult.


Ø Những danh từ luôn ở số nhiều: pants,
trousers, jeans, shorts, scissors…



Ex: The pants are in the drawer.


These scissors are
dull.


BUT: A pair of pants is in the drawer.


This pair of scissors are dull.





* Những trường hợp dùng với động từ số
ít hay số nhiều:



Ø Khi các chủ từ được nối với nhau bởi: or, but,
either..or, neither…nor, not only…but also thì động từ được chia theo chủ từ
nào ở gần động từ nhất:



Ex: George or his sons are going to fix the computer.


Neither
the Oregon
players nor the coach was confident.


Ø Sau những từ như :


Some
SINGULAR NOUN SINGULAR VERB



Any + OF +
+



All PLURAL NOUN PLURAL
VERB



None


Ex: All of the students have identical suitcases.


All of the information was out of date.


None of the gold coins were missing.
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